Object Oriented Programming: Introduction to 5 Basic Concepts of OOPs

The main intent of today’s blog is to share light on the 5 basic concepts of Oops which is mainly used in the renowned programming language, Java. If you are someone who is looking forward to learning and upscaling your career in the tech world, you have come to the right place. Itvedant is a leading IT Training Institute that builds your profile as an IT Professional through the curriculum of its IT Courses.
Imagine you are creating a virtual human simulation. So instead of writing one big piece of code to look after everything, you prefer to build separate objects for different aspects of the simulation. By doing so, you might create an object representing the human itself with its very own attributes like name, age, gender, and methods like walk() or eat(), another object representing the human’s environment like the temperature, climate, time, house, and methods like Temperature() or time(), and so on, is known as the OOPs concepts.
Since you might be wondering what is OOPs concept, let’s take a look into it.

What is OOPs concept (Object- oriented Programming)?
Object-oriented Programming (OOPs), a computer programming model, is a way of writing computer programs based on the concept of objects and classes functioning. In this process, a program is designed in a way to break it down into its individual, self-contained components called “objects”. This approach of having an object represents having real-world functioning or concepts. The oops concept is mainly used in data control which further helps in making it easier to understand, modify, and extend it. In simpler words, the oops concepts help you build the programs by thinking and modeling the world with the help of objects and their interaction.

Basic concepts of Oops (Object Oriented Programming Language):
The 5 basic concepts of Oops consist of the following blocks:

  • Objects & Classes
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Now, let’s walk through all these oops concepts one by one.

  1. Objects and Classes: 
  • Object : The object is the basic unit of the oops concepts and it is responsible for representing real-life entities. A standard Java Program creates a number of objects which is responsible for interacting with the methods. An object is generally what performs your code. The object is based on class definition. 
  • Class : A class is said to be a blueprint that might be user-defined from which objects are made. A class consists of its own attributes such as data members and methods which are objects of that class. With the help of classes, you can create multiple objects with similar behavior, which will in fact save loads of time instead of writing codes multiple times. This includes having one class for multiple objects.
  1. Abstraction:
    Abstraction is a feature that focuses on the essential characteristics and behaviors of objects by designing more flexible and maintainable code. With Java’s abstraction capability, you may represent a system or object by concealing the detailed implementation details and just making the required features and behaviors visible to the outside world. In object-oriented programming, abstraction is a crucial concept. Focusing more on an object’s use than its mechanics can be beneficial.
    In Java, abstraction is the act of representing characteristics without explicitly displaying their integrity or justifications.
  2. Encapsulation:
    The process of concealing a variable’s specifics and features is referred to as encapsulation. It is, in essence, regarded as the abstraction’s deliverable. It acts on the information contained in a single class. In order to protect data integrity and keep implementation details hidden, it prohibits data from outside the class and offers limited access through methods that act as “data hiding”. Hence, the terms “encapsulation” and “data hiding” can be used interchangeably.
    It forbids any outside information from interfering with, changing, or accessing the properties or methods of the object that is being encapsulated.
  3. Inheritance:
    Inheritance is one of the most important pillars of Oops concepts (Object-oriented Programming). The mechanism of inheritance is to allow another class to inherit the features and properties of another class. It allows the inheritance of the properties of one class through the function of reusability of code. The class has to define its features, the rest can be directly derived through the parent class.

    The following are the key terms for inheritance:
  • SuperClass: The class from which other classes derive their methods and properties.
  • SubClass: The class that derives all the properties and methods from a superclass. It is capable of using its own additional properties and methods as well. 
  • Inheritance Relationship: In the oops concept the relationship between SubClass and Superclass is called inheritance relationship.
  1. Polymorphism:
    Polymorphism is referred to as “many forms”. It refers to the ability of object-oriented programming to assign and be able to perform several measures using one single function. Through a shared interface, it is possible for various classes to be considered as instances of the same superclass in Java. This enables you to create more versatile code that can operate on a variety of object kinds. It refers to the capability of object-oriented programming languages to differentiate objects with similar names and properties. 

These OOPs concepts are fundamental to Java’s design philosophy and functioning and are used to create well-organized, modular, and extensible programs. By using objects, classes, abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism one can design real-world scenarios efficiently and build robust applications.
Here, we have brought you to the end of the 5 basic concepts of oops that are important to work with and have a better understanding of the language. These 5 basic concepts of oops have also been illustrated with the help of appropriate examples.
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